As a part of the work behind EMF’s latest book, The Belt and Road Initiative & Global 2030 Sustainability, a series of studies covering 11 countries in Africa, Central Asia, and Asia were commissioned. Each of these background studies provided critical research that informed the book. We will be releasing a number of these papers over the coming weeks. To start, EMF is happy to publish the background papers for Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Indonesia, and Malaysia.
The Sri Lanka study was written by Dr. Ganeshan Wignaraja—a Professorial Fellow in Economics and Trade at Gateway House in Mumbai and Senior Research Associate at the Overseas Development Institute in London. The study examines the economic impact of BRI investments until mid-2022 in Sri Lanka. Specifically, the paper touches on the changing size, scope, and composition of the BRI; the economic and financial viability of its projects; and the challenges facing the BRI in Sri Lanka.
The Belt and Road Initiative in Cambodia: Costs and Benefits, Real and Perceived was written by Jayant Menon—a Senior Fellow at the ISEAS Yusof Ishak Institute in Singapore. The paper examines BRI’s real and perceived costs and benefits in Cambodia. In addition, the paper also analyzes the efficacy of efforts taken to improve BRI projects after the Second BRI summit.
Revisiting Belt and Road Initiative in Indonesia: Progress, Challenges, and Prospects was written by Siwage Dharma Negara–a Senior Fellow and Co-Coordinator for the Indonesia Studies Program at the ISEAS – Yusof Ishak Institute. The paper maps the vast range and type of BRI projects in Indonesia, local perceptions of BRI, and challenges with future engagement. The key challenges dive into the Indonesian principles of future engagement and meeting its carbon mitigation targets.
Revisiting the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) in Malaysia by Dr. Tham Siew Yean–a Visiting Senior Fellow at the ISEAS Yusof Ishak Institute. The paper dives into the pattern of Chinese FDI and involvement in the main sectors. In addition, the paper seeks to explore whether there has been a distinct shift toward the new green aspired goals of the BRI as outlined at the Second BRI summit.
Stay tuned for the next release of background papers.